Oftentimes warlords will exert violence on a particular region in order to gain control. Other countries and territories with warlords include, Iraq, Myanmar (Wa State), Russia (Chechnya), the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Libya, Sudan, Somalia, the Philippines, Pakistan (Pashtun Tribal Areas), Syria and Tajikistan (Gorno-Badakhshan). The term "warlord" was frequently used when Russian and Chechen conflicts were reignited in the 1990s. Warlords ruled various parts of the country following the death of Yuan Shikai (1859–1916), who had served as the … This list of notable warlords is ordered by their level of prominence, and can be sorted for various bits of information, such as where these historic warlords were born and what their nationality is. Franz H. Michael, “Military Organization and Power Structure of China during the Taiping Rebellion.”, "Tilly - Warmaking and statemaking as organized crime.pdf", "Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development", "The Role of the Pashtuns in Understanding the Afghan Crisis", "The Durand Line: Afghanistan's Controversial, Colonial-Era Border", "United States Agency for International Development – U.S. FOREIGN ASSISTANCE FOR AFGHANISTAN POST PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PLAN", "U.S. Here, below is a list of the top 10 legendary warrior cultures throughout history. We argue that behind the resistance to state-building lies a twofold question of legitimate authority: the authority of states to consolidate power within their own internationally recognized borders and the authority of warlords to resist that expansion, by force if necessary, when it threatens social order and the protection of basic rights. This includes the most prominent warlords, living and dead, both in America and abroad. These armed forces, usually considered militias, are loyal to the warlord rather than to the general government. One key assertion - that the current troubles are rooted in the 2004 peace deal that "produced a transitional government made up largely of warlords" - invites a small quibble, but the unending horror faced by Somalis, and vividly portrayed in her report, is the only history that matters. Other warlords could be found in the British Isles during the Middle Ages and up into the Early Modern period; such examples include Brian Boru of Ireland and Guthrum of the Danelaw, who was the commander of the Great Heathen Army and nearly conquered all of England,[43] Alfred of Anglo-Saxon England,[44] first man to unify the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Europe, although it would not be completed until Edward the Elder's reign, in which he conquered the last remnants of the Danelaw.[45]. It was not widely used until the 1920s, when it was used to describe the aftermath of the 1911 Revolution, when provincial military leaders launched the period that would come to be known in China as the Warlord Era. His close friends included the late Col. Muammar Gaddafi of Libya; the conservative former ruler of Ivory Coast, Félix Houphouët-Boigny; the President of Burkina Faso, Blaise Compaoré; and a plethora of businessmen—local and foreign—who were bent on making money in Liberia and disregarded UN disapproval. Rollo of Normandy History of Warlords – China This week Firefly’s Aaron Hayden continues his journey into the history behind our latest ‘castle sim’. [21] Driscoll termed this warlordism "militia coalition politics". Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949 [Forbes, Andrew D. W.] on Amazon.com. The Durand Line, which forms the border between modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan, has proved a source of contention in Afghanistan and a source of challenge for the tribal authorities of Afghanistan. A warlord is a military commander, especially a regional commander with idividual authority. The line, which was negotiated between British diplomat and civil servant Mortimer Durand and Afghan Emir Abdur Khan, was a political boundary drawn in 1893 which clearly defined and demarcated the border between Afghanistan and the British Raj. Warlord Politics and African States. The empire and the states that emerged from it were born and shaped in part from the heavy influence of roving bandits. [citation needed] Roving bandits, contrary to the concept of stationary bandits offered by Mancur Olson, extract from region to region and stay mobile. [30] While having significant political, economic and social impact on Afghanistan, the intervention of the Soviet Union (1979–89), Afghan Civil War (1989–96), Taliban regime (1996–2001) and United States invasion and occupation (2001–present) have not noticeably disrupted the primacy of ethnic tribal authority, and thus the power and influence of warlords, in ordering Afghan society. [7][12][13][14][15][16] Warlord states are disproportionately concentrated within two regions—the former European colonies of Africa and the former Soviet republics of Eurasia. [6] He argues that the monopoly of crime by the state—in this case being the warlords—is in order to receive protection from external rivals as well as internal political rivals. This opened up Georgia and Tajikistan as states eligible to receive international aid, which thereafter became a major source of "rent" for the warlords, providing them with resources to increase their power and influence over these societies. Charles Tilly, an American political scientist and sociologist, theorized that organized crime can function as a means for war and state making. There are two major functional distinctions when considering warlords and their relationship with a state. Liberia's former president Charles Taylor was indicted as a diamond-embezzling warlord who aided and abetted African rebels who committed heinous atrocities against millions of African people. [citation needed], The other major consideration in categorizing warlords is through the lens of history. They form coalitions with competing warlords and local tribal leaders to present the central government with a challenge, and often the state will bargain to gain access to resources or "rent", loyalty from the warlord and peace in the region. As the Qing dynasty disintegrated, it was replaced by the Republic of China, led by Yuan Shikai until his death in 1916. Political scientist Jesse Driscoll uses the term "redistribution politics" to classify the bargaining process between warlords and the regime in states where cooperative warlord politics prevails, and when that bargaining leads to accords or informal arrangements concerning the extraction of rent—which can refer to natural resources, territory, labor, revenue or privilege. The ensuing two years were marked by local warlords rebelling in order to seize power within their local governments and challenging the Dương court. These armed forces, usually considered militias, are loyal to the warlord rather than to the general government. Stories buried in the folds of history...until now. While most of these warrior groups come from ancient history - one or two come close to modern history. In such decentralized states, particularly those where armed groups challenge national sovereignty, warlords can serve as useful allies of a central government that is unable to establish a monopoly over the use of force within its national territory. Should the feudal lord or other noble withdraw his support from the king, either in rebellion or to form an alliance with a rival kingdom, that feudal lord or noble was now ascribing to the political order of ungoverned warlordism. With the collapse in 1911 of China's last imperial dynasty, the Qing, the modern era of warlordism in China began. Such free companies would arise in a situation when the recognized central power had collapsed, such as in the Great Interregnum in Germany (1254–78), in France during the Hundred Years' War after the Battle of Poitiers, or in the Kingdom of Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence. The warlords, with their established militias, are able to maintain a monopoly of violence within certain territories. Among the prominent leaders called warlords were Yan Xishan in Shanxi province, Feng Yuxiang, and Wu Peifu, who had reputations as reformers; Zhang Zuolin, who ruled in Manchuria until the Japanese invasion of 1931; and a number of local warlords with infamous reputations, such as Zhang Zongchang. Ta-Nehisi Coates. Bizarre Obsessions of Dangerous Dictators. They often enforce their right to these resources by claiming to be protecting the people. While most warlords have power vested in them through traditional tribal customs, some hold formal regional government positions, but in both cases cooperation with the central government remains voluntary and reliant on incentives. Tribal leaders often act as local warlords, representing either a tribal confederacy, a tribal kinship group or a smaller tribal lineage grouping, and are expected to provide security, justice and social services to their respective "constituencies". For over 600 years, from the departure of the Romans in 410 to the arrival of the Normans in 1066, England was dominated by the Anglo-Saxon peoples. Under the feudal system of Europe, nobility—whether feudal lords, knights, princes or barons—were warlords in that they served as regional leaders who exercised military, economic and political control over subnational territories and maintained private armies to maintain that status. (Page of tag warlords) The Warlord Era was a period in the history of the Republic of China when control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions from 1916 to 1928. As a result, the country fractured into 12 regions, each led by a warlord. Some nations, such as Liberia and Sierra Leone, have had stationary bandits who use extraction of resources such as diamonds, cobalt and timber ("conflict resources") in order to increase their political power. [35] Beginning in 2008, as it became increasingly evident that the central government in Kabul was incapable of extending its power and control to much of the country, the US military and diplomatic corps began exploring the option of engaging ethnic tribal warlords in negotiations, a strategy that continued through the Obama administration.[36][37][38]. in, Reno, William. [9] In May 2012 he was sentenced to 50 years in prison. Afghanistan unilaterally disputes the legitimacy of the border. Josef Mengele. As noted French philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville and political scientists such as E. J. Hobsbawm and Theda Skocpol observed in their analyses of the Ancien Régime, the French Revolution and democratization in Europe, that commitment was contingent upon a bargaining process in which the king or queen had to guarantee additional territory, revenue, status or other privileges,[9][10][11] meaning that these early European states were weak and the relationship between the crown and feudal lords constituted the form of interdependent warlordism known as cooperative warlord politics. In much of Western Europe, he is remembered as the epitome of cruelty and rapacity. There’s a good reason the sight of a Viking longship struck fear in the hearts of coastal villagers: the Vikings were bad news for everyone. White generals such as Kolchak or Denikin are not considered warlords, because they created a legitimate, though troubled, government and military command. Many warlords paid their soldiers well or allowed them to retain a share of whatever they looted or extorted from ordinary Chinese. Source: Britannica, The Independent. Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949 Warlords in Mongolia could be characterized by this title because of the Mongol Empire's lack of definitive borders and consistent expansion and conquest during the 13th and 14th centuries. Most of these warrior groups come from ancient history – one or two come close to modern history. Noted theorist Max Weber suggested that classic feudalism in pre-modern-state Europe was an example of warlordism, as the state regime was unable to "exercise a monopoly on the use of force within its territory"[8] and the monarch relied on the commitment of loyal knights and other nobility to mobilize their private armies in support of the crown for specific military campaigns. Although the United States and its coalition allies have expended a considerable amount of time, effort and resources attempting to foment the centralization of government and consolidation of power in the state with its seat of power in Kabul,[31][32][33][34] tribal warlords continue to maintain political influence and power throughout the country outside of Kabul. This can be viewed as "cooperative warlord politics". Afghanistan was briefly a democratic state until a 1973 coup, which resulted in the April Revolution of 1978. Please mention other groups who might be considered for a future list in the comments. The two-year Northern Expedition campaign (1926–28) not only defeated the Beiyang Army but also toppled the Beiyang government. [2][3] In China, Junfa is applied retroactively to describe the leaders of regional armies who threatened or used violence to expand their rule, including those who rose to lead and unify kingdoms. ", Reno, William. Although Chiang Kai-shek ascended with legitimacy into his role of leadership of the KMT by succeeding Sun Yat-sen and was recognized by foreign nations, Chiang was accused by some of being a warlord because of his rise by military campaign. The trade-off becomes protection for extraction, and this political framework is common in periphery regions of countries which do not have a strong central government. Attila (Attila the Hun), was the ruler of the Huns from 434 to 453. Warlords have existed throughout much of history, albeit in a variety of different capacities within the political, economic, and social structure of states or ungoverned territories. "The warlord: Twentieth-century Chinese understandings of violence, militarism, and imperialism. In modern states the presence of warlords is often seen as an indicator of state weakness or failure. Ancient Origins articles related to warlords in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. The Imperial commanders-in-chief during the reign of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I did hold the title Kriegsherr, of which the direct translation was "warlord", but they were not warlords in the sense of the word today. While their political power to exercise social order, welfare and regional defense within their territory was derived from hereditary rights or edicts from the monarch, their military strength afforded them independence and strength to negotiate for privileges. Lynne Rienner Publishers. [22], One political theory, pioneered by American economist Mancur Olson, posits that warlords can function as stationary bandits. When people live in a particular region dominated by a warlord, they can choose to flee or live within the political structure the warlords have created. "Warlordism in comparative perspective. Cooperative warlord politics vs. ungoverned warlordism, Warlordism as the dominant political order of pre-state societies, Understanding warlordism in the context of European feudalism, Ungoverned warlordism, or warlords as "stationary bandits". He was leader of the Hunnic Empire, which stretched from the Ural River to the Rhine River and from the Danube River to the Baltic Sea. "[5] However, the functionality is often sustainable because it presents citizens with no choice but to accept rent levies in exchange for protection. In this list we see a combination of two of my favorite things - ancient (well mostly) history and warriors. Stationary bandits can amass power because of their economic connections with foreign firms. The Twelve Warlords War was a period ranging from 966–68 characterized by chaos and civil war. List of famous warlords, with photos, bios, and other information when available. The coup took place while Obote was out of the country. Warlords have existed throughout much of history, albeit in a variety of different capacities within the political, economic, and social structure of states or ungoverned territories. List features people like Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Chiang Kai-shek and more! Warlordism was widespread in Civil War-era Russia (1918–22). Particular attention is paid to the skill of the warrior caste, and the impact of the warrior culture on their society as a whole. Chinese warlords have appeared all throuhout China’s history, springing up in times of turmoil to gain power, and sometimes establishing their own dynasty. The Warlords of History. [25][26], Historically, power in Afghanistan has been decentralized and governance delegated locally to ethnic tribal leadership. Here's What World Leaders Really Think Of Donald Trump. It may actually have a stabilizing effect on a region. "Warlord Competition". [20], In his study of warlordism in Georgia and Tajikistan, political scientist Jesse Driscoll emphasizes how the collapse of the Soviet Union precipitated the rise of militant, independence-seeking nationalist movements within the republics—particularly within the Central Asian and Caucasus regions—resulting in armed conflict and civil war. #7 of 14 Bizarre Obsessions of Dangerous Dictators#97 of 432 Famous Tall Men Over 6'2, #1708 of 2,443 The Most Influential People of All Time#7 of 16 Here's What World Leaders Really Think Of Donald Trump, #1327 of 1,355 The Greatest Minds of All Time#574 of 753 People We Wish Were Still Alive, #282 of 347 The Most Important Leaders In World History#197 of 410 The Most Important Military Leaders in World History. These warlords formed well-structured militias that not only established political and economic control over territories, but institutionalized bureaucracies to establish and maintain their monopolies over violence and rent and "incentivizing the behavior of citizens within a particular geographical space". *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Although warlords were present historically in either pre-modern states or "weak state" societies, and in countries designated "fragile states" or "failed states" in modern times, there is a tremendous degree of variance in the political, economic, and societal organization, structure, and institutions of states where warlordism exists. Notable warlords include Attila, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Mahmud of Ghazni, Saladin, Genghis Khan, Timur (Tamerlane) and Aurangzeb. He was found guilty in April 2012 of all 11 charges levied by the Special Court, including terror, murder and rape. Warlordism has appeared in many states and cultures in history. Warlordism in Europe is usually connected to various mercenary companies and their chieftains, which often were de facto power-holders in the areas where they resided. After the fall of the Mongol Empire, Mongolia was divided between the Eastern and Western Mongols. Who are the top warlords in the world? During his term of office Taylor was accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity as a result of his involvement in the Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002). He was considered as one of the history`s greatest villains. The people on this list are from different countries, but what they all have in common is that they're all renowned warlords. ", Sanborn, Joshua. There is also a divergence of opinion within the field of political science as to what specifically constitutes warlordism, particularly in the context of the historical setting. [17], Warlordism in Afghanistan—another state where the central government is unable to extend political, military or bureaucratic control over large swaths of territories outside the capital—functions cooperatively within the framework of the state, at times. "The genesis of Russian warlordism: Violence and governance during the First World War and the Civil War.". [41] Attention focused on the 1911 Wuchang uprising and Xinhai Revolution. While warlords are commonly viewed as regional leaders who threaten the sovereignty of a state, there are a number of states where the central government functions in collusion with warlords to achieve its goal of exercising its sovereignty over regions that would otherwise fall outside its control. List features people like Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Chiang Kai-shek and more! He served under several warlords, including Dong Zhuo, Zhang Yang, Wang Yun, Yuan Shu, and Yuan Shao early in his career, and the best thing that can be said is that he didn’t murder all of them. As Driscoll observed, the "warlords colluded to create a state". The partitioning of their tribal lands is viewed by Pashtun leaders as a threat to their dominance within Afghanistan, emboldening rival ethnic tribes, and has provoked cross-border tensions between Afghanistan and Pakistan. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. 10. "[19], In the case of Afghanistan, state–warlord bargaining sometimes extends beyond these informal accords and elevates to the status of political clientelism, in which the warlords are appointed to formal government positions, such as regional governor; a title which provides them political legitimacy. Taylor was detained by the UN-backed Special Court for Sierra Leone in 2006 after a period of enforced exile in Nigeria. ", Marten, Kimberly. "Illicit markets, violence, warlords, and governance: West African cases. Welcome to the Warlords of History PodcastWelcome to the Warlords of History PodcastWelcome to the Warlords of History Podcast. Free company mercenary captains, such as Sir John Hawkwood, Roger de Flor of Catalan Company or Hugh Calveley, could be considered warlords. Chiang also conquered and conscripted the forces of rival warlords in the Central Plains War of 1930. Amin worked his way up through the ranks, and in 1971 he committed a coup, deposing Milton Obote. "The warlord as arbitrageur. He crossed the Danube twice and plundered the Balkans, but was unable to tak… Many territories were not under the control of either the Red government in Petrograd (later in Moscow) or the White governments in Omsk and Rostov. The reason this period received the title of "Twelve Warlords War", or Anarchy of the 12 Warlords, is because of the struggle for power after the illegitimate succession to the throne by Dương Tam Kha after the death of Ngô Quyền. The Most Important Leaders In World History, The Most Important Military Leaders in World History. Kony is just one in a long line of despotic warlords that have terrorized the continent. This resulted in conflicts and war among the regional warlords, who all sought to expand their territory and enhance their power. The first is one in which the warlord functions within the political framework through a degree of bargaining with the state regime so that the warlord, sometimes individually and sometimes in a coalition with other warlords, is acting with the explicit consent of or at least in accord with the regime. Idi Amin was the third Ugandan president, and one of the most famous African warlords of all time. The other is one in which the warlord is operating independently of the state and is viewed as a rebel, insurgent or strategic political competitor of the regime. At the time of disintegration, many warlords tried to enthrone themselves or rule the khanate jointly; however, there had been powerful de facto leaders in all parts of the Mongol Empire before. Warlordism was a widespread, dominant political framework that ordered many of the world's societies until the modern state became globally ubiquitous. During the state–warlord bargaining phase, warlords in Afghanistan have a high motivation to prolong war to create political instability, expose weakness of the central state, prompt regional criticism against the government and continue economic extraction. Fascinating accounts of enigmatic warriors and leaders from ancient and medieval times. A truce was reached without any disarmament of militias; instead, the warlord coalitions reached a non-violent "order producing equilibrium",[21] and eventually agreed upon a warlord-friendly civilian figurehead to assume head-of-state duties to demonstrate the legitimacy as a sovereign state to the rest of the world. ", This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 18:48. 10 Most Famous Psychopaths In History. The Warlord system was seen as a great way for the government to recruit powerful pirates to their side, so that they could be used to help the marines in their times of need. He hopped from boss to boss, betraying them to other warlords whenever he got bored or got a better offer. After seizing power from President Samuel Doe in a rebellion, Taylor won elections in 1997. Warlords sought to increase their power by increasing the size of their armies. In the psychopathic doctor category, Josef Mengele takes top honors.This Nazi concentration camp physician, known as “The Angel of Death”, not only personally sent hundreds of thousands to their deaths, he engaged in some of the most atrocious medical experiments in history. Ygo Gales Galama was a famous Frisian warlord, and so was his cousin Pier Gerlofs Donia, who was the leader of the Arumer Zwarte Hoop. The personalities and spectres of Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin loom large in the events of the twentieth Century. [27][28][29] There are four dominant ethnic tribes in Afghanistan (Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Uzbeks), as well as a number of proportionally smaller tribes. This is commonly viewed as "ungoverned warlordism". [18], In exchange for peaceful coexistence, the warlord coalitions are granted special status and privileges, including the right to maintain de facto political rule within the agreed-upon territory, exert force to retain their monopoly over violence and extract rent and resources. Economist Stergios Skaperdas views warlordism as a default—albeit inefficient—competitive economic model that emerges in states where state capacity is low, but that innately evolves into an institution governing political order that uses violence or the threat of it to secure its access to "rent"-producing resources. If the warlords provide protection against external threats of violence, the people will be likely to stay and continue living and working in that region, even though they are being extorted. Skaperdas, Stergios. Some of these warlords rose to the challenge, others lost their kingdoms and their lives in the struggle. Other areas include the eastern part of Ukraine, Lebanon, South Sudan, Mexico and Colombia. A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state because of their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces. Featuring African warlords, Chinese warlords, Japanese warlords, Liberian warlords, African warlords, and other warlords of ancient history, this list has it all. A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state because of their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces. History of Warlords – Vietnam This week we premiere a brand new series featuring our upcoming strategy-simulation game, Stronghold: Warlords. Reno, William. noun. Ragnar’s history is well documented in the old the old writings, where he is father to many sons, including Bjorn Ironside, Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan Ragnarsson, Sigurd Snake-in-the-eye and Ubba Ragnarsson. In colonial empires warlords served in both cooperative political capacities and as leaders of rebellions. Warlord, Chinese (Pinyin) junfa or (Wade-Giles romanization) chün-fa, independent military commander in China in the early and mid-20th century. In the history of most societies, there are groups or classes of people that are forever romanticized in the annals of time. This has led to the formation of at least 93 "Partisan Armed Groups", armed militias loyal to regional warlords who, in exchange for their loyalty and willingness to use their private armies to quell the threats from these opposition groups, are granted a degree of autonomy within designated regions, the exclusive right to use violence and the right "to profit from the 'economy of violence' that they establish in their own areas". The Cossack ataman Semyonov held territories in the Transbaikalia region, and the 'Bloody Baron' Ungern von Sternberg was the dictator of Mongolia for a short time. and sent armies as far as Central Europe and Southeast Asia. "Mafiya troubles, warlord crises." In some African states, warlord politics can be a product of endowment-rich, extractable resources. He joined the British colonial regiment, the King’s African rifles in 1946. The people on this list are from different countries, but what they all have in common is that they're all renowned warlords. 1999. Zhang Zuolin (simplified Chinese: 张作霖; traditional Chinese: 張作霖; pinyin: Zhāng Zuòlín;... Akhmad-Haji Abdulkhamidovich Kadyrov (Russian: Ахмат-Хаджи Абдулхамидович Кадыров; Chechen:... Cao Cao (pronunciation ; [tsʰǎu tsʰáu]; Chinese: 曹操; c. 155 – 15 March 220), courtesy name... Aslan (Khalid) Aliyevich Maskhadov (Russian: Асла́н (Хали́д) Али́евич Масха́дов; Chechen:... Joseph Rao Kony (pronounced [koɲ]; likely born 1961) is the leader of the Lord's Resistance... Baitullah Mehsud (Pashto,Urdu: بیت اللہ محسود‎); c. 1972 – c. 5 August 2009) was a leading... Thomas Lubanga Dyilo (born 29 December 1960) is a convicted war criminal from the Democratic... Liao Zhongkai (April 23, 1877 – August 20, 1925) was a Kuomintang leader and financier. Military Leaders in World history, the other major consideration in categorizing is! 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State making in categorizing warlords is through the ranks, and one of the history ` s villains! Kai-Shek and more combination of two of my favorite things - ancient ( well )... Of Ukraine, Lebanon, South Sudan, Mexico and Colombia cases there is an inherent in! Ukraine, Lebanon, South Sudan, Mexico and Colombia list features people like Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Chiang and! Along tribal or kinship lines and was congruent with early perception of `` nation.... Of various political colors the term `` warlord '' was frequently used when Russian and Chechen conflicts were reignited the... Modern state warlords in history globally ubiquitous Afghanistan and Somalia in 1911 of China 's last imperial dynasty, the Qing disintegrated! Civil War-era Russia ( 1918–22 ) which warlords play an Important role – these are Afghanistan and Somalia by access... Betraying them to other warlords whenever he got bored or got a better offer established militias, loyal... A result, the Qing dynasty disintegrated, it was replaced by the Special Court for Sierra Leone in after! Police units or intelligence services and had experience operating within highly organized bureaucracies a result, the warlords.