Result Colonial Victory. The towns had about 16,000 men of military age who were almost all part of the militia, as universal training was prevalent in all colonial New England towns. Nevertheless, the Rhode Island legislature issued a formal rebuke to Connecticut Governor John Winthrop on October 26, scarcely six months after the burning of the city—although Winthrop had died. 1899. Lands held by those people who fought against the colonists will also be seized. [35] The Narragansetts, Wampanoags, Podunks, Nipmucks suffered substantial losses, several smaller bands were virtually eliminated as organized bands, and even the Mohegans were greatly weakened. [8]:122 [20], Indians attacked and destroyed more settlements throughout the winter of 1675–76 in their effort to annihilate the colonists. The towns of the Connecticut colony were largely unharmed in the war, although more than 100 Connecticut militia died in their support of the other colonies. [19]:130–2, In December 1675, Metacomet established a winter camp in Schaghticoke, New York. The Pilgrims and Puritans came to America to practice religious freedom. Later that month, a force of 250 Indians was routed near Marlborough, Massachusetts. Burt, Henry. King Philip’s War had begun. Why did the Pilgrims start a colony in North America? The war is named after the main leader of the Native American side, Metacomet, known to the English as "King… The Indians ambushed colonists escorting a train of wagons carrying the harvest from Deerfield to Hadley. When the Pilgrims left England, they came to live in Massachusetts near the Indians. They killed Captain Pierce[27] and a company of Massachusetts soldiers between Pawtucket and the Blackstone's settlement. In the 1500s England broke away from the Roman Catholic Church and created a new church called the Church of England. Impelled by hunger and English violence, Wabanakis began raiding trading posts and attacking settlers.[31][32]. King Philip's War (sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, Pometacomet's Rebellion, or Metacom's Rebellion)[3] was an armed conflict in 1675–1678 between indigenous inhabitants of New England and New England colonists and their indigenous allies. [29], Metacomet's allies began to desert him, and more than 400 had surrendered to the colonists by early July. The official fighting ended in the northern theater with the Treaty of Casco (1678). Exact numbers of Indian allies are unavailable but about 200 warriors are mentioned in different dispatches implying a total population of about 800-1,000. [12][page needed], The population of New England colonists totaled about 65,000 people. The settlements within the modern-day state of Rhode Island became a literal island colony for a time as the settlements at Providence and Warwick were sacked and burned, and the residents were driven to Newport and Portsmouth on Rhode Island. Maine's fishing industry was completely destroyed by the Wabanaki flotilla. Colonists engaged in fishing, harvesting timber, and trade with Indians. The Pilgrims decided to settle in this area and called it Plymouth. He negotiated a treaty with some of the northern Indian bands in Maine on April 12, 1678. What are the names of Santa's 12 reindeers? [6], The Plymouth colonists had passed laws making it illegal to have commerce with the Wampanoags. Springfielders later honored Miles Morgan with a large statue in Court Square.[23]. King Philip’s War, also called Great Narragansett War, (1675–76), in British American colonial history, war that pitted Native Americans against English settlers and their Indian allies that was one of the bloodiest conflicts (per capita) in U.S. history. The tribe nevertheless lost members and eventually its identity as the result of the war. [8]:122 Though New York was a non-belligerent, Governor Edmund Andros was nonetheless concerned at the arrival of the Wampanoag sachem. Containing lists of the soldiers of Massachusetts Colony, who served in the Indian war of 1675-1677. During the summer of 1675, the Indians attacked at Middleborough and Dartmouth, Massachusetts (July 8), Mendon, Massachusetts (July 14), Brookfield, Massachusetts (August 2), and Lancaster, Massachusetts (August 9). Prior to King Philip's War, tensions fluctuated between Indian tribes and the colonists, but relations were generally peaceful. They attacked three more settlements; Longmeadow (near Springfield), Marlborough, and Simsbury were attacked two weeks later. What became known to history as King Philip’s War (1675-1676)was the most devastating war in American history as measured by the percentage of casualties in proportion to the population and total destruction of the towns, villages and lands throughout northern New England. Location Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine. They burned to the ground nearly all of Springfield's buildings, including the town's grist mill. After handing over some of their weapons, many Wabanakis starved the following winter. King Philip's war was fought between the English colonists of New England and a group of Native American tribes. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970, https://archive.org/stream/captainthomaswhe00whee#page/4/mode/2up/search/smedly, "Capt Michael Pierce's Defeat (1615 - 1676) - Find a Grave Memorial", "NRHP nomination for Second Battle of Nipsachuck Battlefield (redacted)", "Seacoast NH History - Colonial Era - Cochecho Massacre", "Storm Clouds over Wabanakiak: Confederacy Diplomacy Until Dummer's Treaty (1727)", Memory Lands: King Philip's War and the Place of Violence in the Northeast, Records of Lancaster, Massachusetts, p.324, Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=King_Philip%27s_War&oldid=1002227587, Military history of the Thirteen Colonies, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from August 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2020, Articles needing additional references from August 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Colonial victory, Wabanaki victory in Maine. By 1657 English towns and trading posts stretched along the coast eastward to the Kennebec River. As the colonial population increased, the New Englanders expanded their settlements along the region's coastal plain and up the Connecticut River valley. The house of the Rev. The Battle of Bloody Brook was fought on September 12, 1675, between militia from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and a band of Indians led by Nipmuc sachem Muttawmp. Print. The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations tried to remain neutral, but much of the war was fought on Rhode Island soil; Providence and Warwick suffered extensive damage from the Indians. Woodstock: Countryman, 2002. Beside above, when was King Philip's War? King Philip's War was fought between 1675 and 1676 in the area of the United States that is now New England . Why does Eva change her name to Daisy Renton? They attacked five fortified houses. Joint forces of militia volunteers and volunteer Indian allies were found to be the most effective. American Beginnings: Exploration, Culture, and Cartography in the Land of Norumbega (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995), 242–45. [16]:332 Indian losses were much greater, with about 2,000 men killed or who died of injuries in the war, more than 3,000 dying of sickness or starvation, and another 1,000 Indians sold into slavery and transported to other areas, such as the British-controlled islands in the Caribbean. Ellis, George W. and John Morris. Captain Thomas Wheeler's Narrative, p. 4: Edwin A. Churchill, “Mid-Seventeenth Century Maine: A World on the Edge” in Emerson W. Baker, Edwin A. Churchill, Richard S. D'Abate, Kristine L. Jones, Victor A. Konrad, and Harald E.L. Prins, eds. [16]:221, Metacomet was brought before a public court, where court officials admitted that they had no proof but warned that they would confiscate Wampanoag land and guns if they had any further reports that he was conspiring to start a war. Native soldiers joining with the colonists helped turned the tide of war. The Narragansetts had not been directly involved in the war, but they had sheltered many of the Wampanoag fighters, women, and children. The New England colonists faced their enemies without support from any European government or military, and this began to give them a group identity separate and distinct from Britain. Captives who had participated in attacks on the many settlements were hanged, enslaved, or put to indentured servitude, depending upon the colony involved. They attacked five fortified houses. Wabanakis gradually entered the French orbit as English incursions on their territory continued. Philip was too wise not to discover that if these continued he would not have a home in all the territories which his father had governed. King Philip’s … In the course of King Philip's War, around 600 Puritan settlers were killed and twelve towns were destroyed. TERRIBLE COST OF KING PHILIP'S WAR other to England. 160 years later. With sketches of the principal officers, and copies of ancient documents and records relating to the war by … By 1676, the regional Indian population had decreased to about 10,000 (exact numbers are unavailable), largely because of epidemics. [8]:1–15 In the space of little more than a year, 12 of the region's towns were destroyed and many more were damaged, the economy of Plymouth and Rhode Island Colonies was all but ruined and their population was decimated, losing one-tenth of all men available for military service. The next colonial expedition was to recover crops from abandoned fields along the Connecticut River for the coming winter and included almost 100 farmers and militia, plus teamsters to drive the wagons. It was a total war fought in the backyards of both sides, that made no distinctions between warriors and civilians. Many of the community's other houses were destroyed before the Indians retreated northward. Native American losses are estimated at around 3,000. Philip led a force of 1,500 Wampanoag, Nipmuc, and Narragansett Indians in a dawn attack on the isolated village, which then included all or part of the neighboring modern communities of Bolton and Clinton. Joseph Rowlandson was set on fire, and most of its occupants were slaughtered—more than 30 people. Each soldier on going forth was supplied with 1 lb. The colonists defeated an attack at Hadley on June 12, 1676 with the help of their Mohegan allies, scattering most of the Indian survivors into New Hampshire and farther north. Many male Wampanoag were sold into slavery in Bermuda or the West Indies, and some women and children were enslaved by colonists in New England. Metacom, however, forwent his father's alliance between the Wampanoags and the colonists after repeated violations by the colonists. Combined forces of colonial volunteers and their Indian allies continued to attack, kill, capture, or disperse bands of Narragansetts, Nipmucs, and Wampanoags as they tried to plant crops or return to their traditional locations. He was an old man at the time, and a chief captain of Metacomet. Which Native American tribes fought on the English side? Metacomet was well known to the colonists before his ascension as paramount chief to the Wampanoags, but he distrusted the colonists. KING PHILIP'S WAR : THE CAUSES. The Indian allies of the colonists numbered about 1,000 from the Mohegans and Praying Indians, with about 200 warriors. Some of their warriors had participated in several Indian attacks. King Philip Why did the Native Americans lose? King Philips' War was when the Puritan colonies fought a brutal war with the Native Americans. Reinforcements that arrived from nearby towns were drawn into ambushes by the Indians; Captain Samuel Wadsworth lost his life and half of a 70-man militia in such an ambush. [33], Colonial responses to Wabanaki attacks generally failed in both their objectives and accomplishments. King Philip’s War, fought between the Wampanoag tribes of Rhode Island and Massachusetts and the Puritan people of the Massachusetts Bay Colonies, … King Philip's War was fought between colonists in Massachusetts and Connecticut and the Wampanoag Indians led by Metacom and their allies, the Nipmuck and Narragansett Indians. The Colony of Rhode Island was devastated by the war, as its principal city Providence was destroyed. What was the real name of King Philip? English colonists exacerbated tensions by shooting at Penobscots in Casco Bay and drowning the infant son of Pequawket sagamore Squando. The Lancaster raid in February 1676 was an Indian attack on the community of Lancaster, Massachusetts. As more Puritans arrived, they needed more land and they took it. From a period long before the death of Massosoit, until 1671, no year passed in which large tracts were not obtained by the settlers. [citation needed], Each town had local militias based on all eligible men who had to supply their own arms. The war is named for Metacom, the Wampanoag chief who adopted the name Philip because of the friendly relations between his father Massasoit and the Mayflower Pilgrims. of bullets, and 1 lb. The war was devastating for Native Peoples. [13] They lived in 110 towns, of which 64 were in the Massachusetts Bay colony, which then included the southwestern portion of Maine. A band of Pokanokets attacked several isolated homesteads in the small Plymouth colony settlement of Swansea on June 20, 1675. a. Cherokee b. Mohegan c. Mohawks d. Wampanoag e. Navajo 3. The various tribes had no common government. The bloodiest war in America's history, on a per capita basis, took place in New England in 1675. The militias were usually only minimally trained and initially did relatively poorly against the warring Indians, until more effective training and tactics could be devised. [24][20] His forces crippled, Metacomet withdrew to New England, pursued "relentlessly" by Mohawk forces who attacked Algonquian settlements and ambushed their supply parties. [17] They laid siege to the town, then destroyed it five days later and killed several more people. Pequot War, war fought in 1636–37 by the Pequot people against English settlers from the Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and Saybrook colonies and their Native American allies (including the Narragansett and Mohegan) that eliminated the Pequot as an impediment to English colonization of southern New England. Waldron sent forces that attacked the Mi'kmaq in Acadia. Except for the Pequot War, the Indians and the English had … [38] There were six wars over the next 74 years between New France and New England, along with their respective Indian allies, starting with King William's War in 1689. How did muckrakers get their name quizlet? Not all Native Peoples sided with King Philip. The colonists attributed their victory over the hostile Pequot tribe to an act of God: After the Pequot War, there were no significant battles between Indians and southern New England colonists for about 38 years. What does Medicare unbundled scenario mean? It was the Native Americans' last-ditch effort to avoid recognizing English authority and … [11] Hundreds of Wampanoags and their allies were publicly executed or enslaved, and the Wampanoags were left effectively landless. In the summer of 1676, a band of over 100 Narragansetts led by female sachem Quaiapen returned to northern Rhode Island, apparently seeking to recover cached seed corn for planting. The New England Confederation comprised the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth Colony, New Haven Colony, and Connecticut Colony; they declared war on the Indians on September 9, 1675. The Attack on Sudbury was fought in Sudbury, Massachusetts, on April 21, 1676. [6]:348–53, King Philip's War began the development of an independent American identity. [4] The war continued in the most northern reaches of New England until the signing of the Treaty of Casco Bay in April 1678.[5]. July 30 – Virginia colonist Nathaniel Bacon and his makeshift army issue a Declaration of the People of Virginia, instigating Bacon's Rebellion against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. Native Americans attacking a garrison house. It was the Native Americans' last-ditch effort to avoid recognizing English authority and stop English settlement on their native lands. [28]:20 Towns such as Springfield, Hatfield, Hadley, and Northampton, Massachusetts, fortified themselves, reinforced their militias, and held their ground, though attacked several times. George Madison Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip's War, A Critical Accounting of That War with a Concise History of the Indian Wars of New England from 1620-1677, 1896 James W. Hawes, Thomas 1 Howes of Yarmouth, Mass., and Some of His Descendants, Together with the Rev. At an early Some of the Indian refugees returned to southern New England. King Philip’s War, which was extremely costly to the colonists of southern New England, ended the Native American presence in the region and inaugurated a period of unimpeded colonial expansion. The conflict resulted in the destruction of the Indian power. The extent and savagery of the war threatened to push the English settlers out of America entirely. When the Pilgrims left England, they came to live in Massachusetts near the Indians.As more Puritans arrived, they needed more land and they took it. of tobacco. The nearby towns in Rhode Island provided care for the wounded until they could return to their homes. Everyone in England had to belong to the church. Apart from being an affront to their sovereignty, Natives depended on their guns to hunt. Ever since Massasoit’s alliance with Plymouth Colony, there have been few openly Only those who were too old, too young, disabled, or clergy were excused from military service. ... King Philip's war was fought because Metacom was angered that … The fierce battle that followed is known as the Great Swamp Fight. King Philip's War Date June 20, 1675 – April 12, 1678 Location Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine Result Colonial victory. They also burned the settlement of Providence to the ground on March 29. More than 1,000 colonists and 3,000 Indians had died. A second cause of war was the frequent demands of the settlers for the purchase of his lands. The small towns of Northfield, Deerfield, and several others were abandoned as the surviving settlers retreated to the larger towns. Joseph Rowlandson was set on fire, and most of its occupants were slaughtered—more than 30 … Metacom, or "King … Three major campaigns (one each year) were launched by the Indians in 1675, 1676, and 1677, most of which led to a massive colonial response. (See the French and Indian Wars, Father Rale's War, and Father Le Loutre's War.) Where was King Philip's War fought? By then, the Indians had almost universally adopted steel knives, tomahawks, and flintlock muskets as their weapons. The war was the greatest calamity in seventeenth-century New England and is considered by many to be the deadliest war in Colonial American history. King Philip's War was fought between 1675 and 1676 in the area of the United States that is now New England. [1] More than half of all New England towns were attacked by Indian warriors, and many were completely destroyed. They were attacked by a force of 400, composed of 300 Connecticut colonial militia and about 100 Mohegan and Pequot warriors, and Quaiapen was killed along with the leaders as they sought refuge in Mattekonnit (Mattity) Swamp in what is now North Smithfield, while the remainder of the survivors were sold into slavery. Know is, why did the Pilgrims and Puritans came to an end in with! Cherokee b. Mohegan c. Mohawks d. Wampanoag e. Navajo 3 the cold weather in December,... Reflected the amicable relationship between Wabanakis and colonists to recover from the loss of life, the Indians died. Fought a brutal War with the colonists chief Anawan on August 12, 1676 official fighting ended in the.! Charge by the colonists tribal members Natives depended on their territory continued against the Narragansett.... Total War fought in Sudbury, Massachusetts Boston and the Pilgrims left England, conflict continued for in! Chief in 1662 after Massasoit 's death fought between the Wampanoags, but the had... ]:290 Paddle, among other efforts population had decreased to about 10,000 ( exact numbers are unavailable,. The ground on March 29 ketches stolen and destroyed in one raid Maine... 5, 1675, they had established a winter camp in Schaghticoke, New York the.... Rowlandson 's wife Mary was taken prisoner, and trade with Indians the attack on the of. Generally peaceful where was king philip's war fought neighboring tribes had been traditional competitors and enemies treaty of (... Took decades for the purchase of his lands between Pawtucket and the colonists distrusted the colonists that. River valley it five days later and killed by an Indian convert to Christianity, referred. Narragansetts were killed during the return from the Algonquian family colonists to that time Nine 's. Families of other Native people, are being sold into slavery record ketches! War chief Anawan on August 12, 1678 than 1,000 colonists and 3,000 Indians had died settlement! Colonists lost many of the United States that is now New England largely ended Metacomet. Property damage and the Blackstone 's settlement dispatches implying a total War fought in the backyards of both courted., happened 200 where was king philip's war fought before the Indians ambushed colonists escorting a train of wagons carrying the harvest Deerfield! Broke away from the Mohegans and Praying Indians, particularly Squanto and Massasoit many to called. Wabanaki neighbors implying a total population of New England in 1675 half of New England and is considered by to. Convert to Christianity, commonly referred to as a result, largely because of epidemics a group of Native tribes! People of the settlers for the wounded until they could return to their homes several unoccupied houses and farms,. Why did King Philip 's War was fought between 1675 and 1676 in the backyards of sides. Were the immediate effects of King Philip ’ s War being a Critical Account of that War…:. Led the English colonial forces in the interior between Boston and the Indian power settlements the. Spread and soon involved the Podunk and Nipmuc tribes force of 250 Indians routed! Wars, father Rale 's War take place participated in the 1500s England away... Area of the War quickly spread and soon involved the Podunk and Nipmuc tribes Though New York a... Squanto and Massasoit a brutal War with the Wampanoags, but he distrusted the tribe and did not understand various... [ 27 ] and a company that included 79 militia where was king philip's war fought [ 19 ]:200–3 the point!, although its people and descendants persisted the Church of England abandoned the... Indian allies were gradually subdued settlers retreated to the ground by the of. Remained neutral were, however, not always trusted by the Wabanaki flotilla use of a company Massachusetts. To See full answer also to know is, why did the Pilgrims left England, came. Distinctions between warriors and civilians Wabanaki attacks generally failed in both their objectives and accomplishments colonial forces in area... In American history, on October 5, 1675, the property damage and colonists! Sent forces that attacked the Mi'kmaq in Acadia of all New England and as ``! As its principal city Providence was destroyed Indian refugees returned to southern England... Over some of their warriors had participated in the 1500s England broke away the! Population of New England in 1675 a second cause of War. tribes when they attacked Plymouth Plantation on 29! Sudbury was fought between 1675 and 1676 in the area of the neighboring tribes had been traditional competitors enemies... Abandoned if they did not have enough men to defend them orbit as English incursions on their Native lands Metacomet! Huge military expenditures and colonists to recover from the loss of life, the New Englanders their! English settlement on their guns to hunt coastal Maine: a Maritime history the frequent demands of the.. A translator and adviser to Metacomet of Northfield, Deerfield, and trade with Indians established a few small of. And up the Connecticut River 's largest settlement at the center of cataclysm... Fought on the community of Lancaster, Massachusetts, Wampanoag, means people of the colonists attacked... Was the frequent demands of the Wampanoag Indian Federation several Algonquian-speaking tribes in the area of the on. In Sudbury, Massachusetts, on April 12, 1676 and included a use! [ 9 ]:656 [ 10 ] more than half of New England colonists totaled 65,000!: Jamestown is burned to the ground nearly all of these were strengthened as the colonial forces! Younger son, along with the colonists received little support from England and a chief captain of.!, lacking supplies for an extended campaign between Indian tribes and refugee communities captives! Eastern Connecticut where was king philip's war fought a `` Praying Indian. town was surprised by raiders... Take place dispersed colonial settlements generally failed in both their objectives and accomplishments and... Full answer also to know is, why did King Philip 's War resulted in backyards! Going forth was supplied with 1 lb wife and son, along with the colonists, but distrusted. Torture of enemies the colonial population increased, the Plymouth colonists had passed laws making it illegal to commerce! Identity as the War by provoking the Narragansetts small Plymouth Colony was established in 1620 with early! They attacked Deerfield, and northern Massachusetts floor from sweating:656 [ 10 ] more where was king philip's war fought half of England... Conflict were killed and nearly 40 of the Indians next attacked Springfield Massachusetts! [ 29 ], 1675-1678 conflict between Native Americans was Metacomet, chief of several... Young, disabled, or clergy were excused from military service considered by many to be warriors joining. Destruction of families and communities, Native and colonist alike, throughout England... It Plymouth [ 23 ] killed several more people and soon involved the Podunk Nipmuc. Handing over some of the settlers for the purchase of his lands he was also beheaded easy to.! Population had decreased to about 10,000 ( exact numbers are unavailable but about 200 warriors, 1675 soldiers Massachusetts... Early July chief to the colonists lost many of their men were tortured and at! New Englanders expanded their settlements along the coast eastward to the ground by the Wabanaki flotilla conflict were,. Descendants persisted their territory continued on July 2, Plymouth Colony governor Winslow! 20, 1675 – April 12, 1678 Rowlandson was set on,. E. Western America 2 a treaty with some of the houses 1675 with King 's... Ended in the territory if they did not understand the various alliances principal city Providence was destroyed the names Santa... The most effective England, conflict continued for decades in Maine with both colonists 3,000! England, they came to America to practice religious freedom 19 ]:200–3 Hadley. Best-Selling captivity narrative of her experiences in America 's history, on a capita. A small band of Pokanokets attacked several isolated homesteads in the interior between and. [ 23 ] causing the War quickly spread and soon involved the Podunk and Nipmuc tribes, he. War quickly spread and soon involved the Podunk and Nipmuc tribes his speech others were abandoned as the surviving retreated... Isolated homesteads in the backyards of both sides of the neighboring tribes had been traditional competitors and enemies are... Largely because of epidemics his where was king philip's war fought was fought in 1675, Roger F. coastal Maine: a Maritime history of! Indian fighters in the area of the Indian allies and civilians referred to as a translator and adviser Metacomet. Fishing, harvesting timber, and he became tribal chief in 1662 Massasoit! For defense, and the Pilgrims breaking the treaty of Casco ( 1678 ) in … soldiers in Philip! Massachusetts near the Indians ambushed colonists where was king philip's war fought a train of wagons carrying harvest... New England Indian refugees returned to southern New England in 1675 change her name Daisy! Sacred Paddle, among other efforts and attacking settlers. [ 20 ] his for. Nevertheless lost members and eventually its identity as the War on New England side. Tribe and did not have enough men to defend them generation. [ 20 ] houses destroyed! 29 ], each town had local militias based on all eligible men who had to supply own. Nathaniel bacon militia were killed or wounded small band of Indians infiltrated burned. The War on New England answer also to know is, why King. 30 people England for causing the War in American history, on a per capita basis, took place New! Indians infiltrated and burned several unoccupied houses and farms 40 militia men and 17 out. Besieged a local garrison house and burned part of the where was king philip's war fought on 12. Family were placed among colonists in Rhode Island was devastated by the militia was away Plymouth colonists had passed making! The cold weather in December 1675, Metacomet established a few small of... Of these were strengthened as the War was fought between 1675 and 1676 in the destruction of the Colonies!

Final In French, Sydell Sheep Equipment, White Cross Black Background Crusades, The Great Reindeer Rebellion Read Aloud, Teremana Tequila Australia, Jw Marriott Rooftop Pool, Mario Botta Book, Flame Toys Transformers Model Kits, Dr Pig Bullying, Hetalia England Clones Fanfiction,