He had four older sisters: Cecilie, Sophie, Margarita and Theodora. [33], Eventually, in the summer of 1946, Philip asked the King for his daughter's hand in marriage. Additionally, he has participated in the work of many organizations, particularly favoring those focused on the environment, athletics and education. [116] The driver and a passenger of the other car were injured and taken to hospital. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! [107][108], Prince Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, meeting Royal Marines in his final solo public engagement, aged 96. [38], The day before the wedding, King George VI bestowed the style of Royal Highness on Philip and, on the morning of the wedding, 20 November 1947, he was made the Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich of Greenwich in the County of London. [60][61] Any part of the allowance that is not used to meet official expenditure is liable for tax. The king agreed, provided that any formal engagement was delayed until Elizabeth's 21st birthday. On September 22, 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I of Greece, was forced to abdicate the throne. Prince Harry is the second son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Princess Diana. "[133], Philip's down-to-earth manner was attested to by a White House butler who recalled that, on a visit in 1979, Philip had engaged him and a fellow butler in a conversation and poured them drinks. [120][121] On 14 February, the Crown Prosecution Service announced that prosecuting Philip would not be in the public interest. From 1956 to 1957, Philip travelled around the world aboard the newly commissioned HMY Britannia, during which he opened the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and visited the Antarctic, becoming the first royal to cross the Antarctic Circle. Philip and the Queen regularly attended Cowes Week in HMY Britannia. [75] He was president of the National Playing Fields Association (now known as Fields in Trust) for 64 years, from 1947 until his grandson Prince William took over the role in 2013. Their marriage is now the longest of any British monarch.[41][42]. Elizabeth of France was the daughter of Henry II of France … This newly created position will lead the King Philip Regional, Norfolk, Wrentham and Plainville Schools’ efforts to build organizations based on equity, inclusion and belonging for all students, their families, staff and community members. [57] Contrary to rumours over the years, the Queen and Duke are said by insiders to have had a strong relationship throughout their marriage, despite the challenges of Elizabeth's reign. Philip , sachem (chief) of a Wampanoag band, was a son of Massasoit, who had greeted the first colonists of New England at Plymouth in 1621. Church, Benjamin. The 13-year-old Elizabeth developed a crush on Philip during the trip. Philip married Queen Elizabeth II before her ascension to the British throne in 1952. [84] She found the letters hard to take, but nevertheless appreciated that he was acting with good intent. Their first two children were born before Elizabeth succeeded her father as monarch in 1952: Prince Charles in 1948 and Princess Anne in 1950. The Philippines are named after him. [150], Prince Philip appears as a fictional character in Nevil Shute's novel In the Wet (1952), Paul Gallico's novel Mrs. 'Arris Goes to Moscow (1974), Tom Clancy's novel Patriot Games (1987), and Sue Townsend's novel The Queen and I (1992).[151]. He was released from the London Clinic on June 17, following more than a week in the hospital. For six months, over 1953–54, Philip and Elizabeth toured the Commonwealth; as with previous tours the children were left in Britain. [8] Philip has stated that he thought of himself as Danish, and his family spoke English, French, and German. [59], Prince Philip receives a Parliamentary annuity (of £359,000 since 1990[fn 3]) that serves to meet official expenses in carrying out public duties. On 12 April, his daughter, Princess Anne, spent about 50 minutes in the hospital and afterwards said her father was "on good form". [63] Philip was not crowned in the service, but knelt before Elizabeth, with her hands enclosing his, and swore to be her "liege man of life and limb". [105] In June 2017, he was taken from Windsor to London and admitted to King Edward VII's Hospital after being diagnosed with an infection. Boston: John Kimball Wiggin, 1865. Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became queen in 1952, having reached the rank of commander, and was formally made a British prince in 1957. An eyewitness who came to the prince's aid described having to wipe blood off his hands. I certainly didn't take any offence. Luckily for him, he spent little time there, preferring his father’s realms in Holland. During the visit, the Queen and Louis Mountbatten asked his nephew Philip to escort the King's two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, who were Philip's third cousins through Queen Victoria, and second cousins once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark. Philip's father arranged his marriage to 37-year-old Queen Mary I of England, Charles V'smaternal first cousin. Philip, Alexandra, and her children are all descended from Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, the daughter of Queen Victoria, through a purely female line. At the behest of the Greek king, George II, he returned to Britain in September to resume training for the Royal Navy. David Loades | Published in History Today Volume 57 Issue 1 January 2007 To continue reading this article you will need to purchase access to the online archive. As with Townsend, the press still portrayed divorce as a scandal and eventually Parker resigned. 407–408; Heald, pp. Prince Andrew's life was also believed to be in danger, and Princess Alice was under surveillance. [19], After leaving Gordonstoun in early 1939, Philip completed a term as a cadet at the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, then repatriated to Greece, living with his mother in Athens for a month in mid-1939. [23] After the invasion of Greece by Italy in October 1940, he was transferred from the Indian Ocean to the battleship HMS Valiant in the Mediterranean Fleet. [148] His comment had no effect on Sino-British relations, but it shaped his own reputation. Philip is also related to the House of Romanov through both of his parents. Green, 1716. The Conquests of Philip II The reign of King Philip II Augustus was an important turning point. [34] By March 1947, Philip had abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles, had adopted the surname Mountbatten from his mother's family, and had become a naturalised British subject. [97] While staying at Sandringham House, the royal residence in Norfolk, on 23 December 2011, the Duke suffered chest pains and was taken to the cardio-thoracic unit at Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire, where he underwent successful coronary angioplasty and stenting. [15] In 1933, he was sent to Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, which had the "advantage of saving school fees" because it was owned by the family of his brother-in-law, Berthold, Margrave of Baden. In 1992, he said that he "could understand a certain amount". It was initially set at £40,000 in the Civil List Act 1952, raised to £65,000 by the Civil List Act 1972, and raised to £165,000 by the Civil List (Increase of Financial Provision) Order 1984. [58][59] The Queen referred to Prince Philip in a speech on the occasion of her Diamond Jubilee in 2012 as her "constant strength and guide". [40] In post-war Britain it was not acceptable for any of the Duke of Edinburgh's German relations to be invited to the wedding, including Philip's three surviving sisters, all of whom had married German princes. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, wanted to "regularise" Philip's position by officially receiving him into the Church of England,[37] which he did in October 1947. [8] Philip, who in his youth was known for his charm, was linked to a number of women, including Osla Benning. Both Philip and Queen Elizabeth II are great-great-grandchildren of Queen Victoria, Elizabeth by descent from Victoria's eldest son, King Edward VII, and Philip by descent from Victoria's second daughter, Princess Alice. Philip is also related to the British royal family as a descendant of Queen Victoria. One month later, he was hospitalized again with an infection, but was said to be in "good spirits.". Philip and Richard’s relationship eventually soured. He and Elizabeth eventually had four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew and Edward. Prince Philip was rumored to be dead following a Twitter hoax that spread on March 18. Thanks to their alliance, Philip went to war against Richard’s father with Richard later joining in, ultimately defeating Henry II. An official statement said he was uninjured. The engagement of Philip and Elizabeth was announced to the public on July 10, 1947. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg. After the war, Philip was granted permission by George VI to marry Elizabeth. Philip and Elizabeth have four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Princess Royal; Prince Andrew, Duke of York; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex. [56], After her accession to the throne, the Queen also announced that the Duke was to have "place, pre-eminence and precedence" next to her "on all occasions and in all meetings, except where otherwise provided by Act of Parliament". [21] In June 1942, he was appointed to the V and W-class destroyer and flotilla leader HMS Wallace, which was involved in convoy escort tasks on the east coast of Britain, as well as the Allied invasion of Sicily. His first airborne flying lesson took place in 1952; by his 70th birthday he had accrued 5,150 pilot hours. It so happens that my mother was quite seriously deaf and I have been Patron of the Royal National Institute for the Deaf for ages, so it's hardly likely that I would do any such thing. He is a patron, president, or member of over 780 organisations, and he serves as chairman of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award, a self-improvement program for young people aged 14 to 24. The Duke's uncle, Earl Mountbatten of Burma, advocated the name House of Mountbatten. Prince Andrew, the brother of Prince Charles, is the Duke of York and eighth in line to the British throne. Lacey, p. 304; see also Heald, p. 245 for a Hong Kong version of the "round-eyed" joke. Philip launched the Duke of Edinburgh's Award in the mid-1950s, with a focus on youth achievement. Hugh Casson described Philip's own artwork as "exactly what you'd expect ... totally direct, no hanging about. The Queen formally issued letters patent in 1957 making Philip a British prince. At the beginning of 1981, Philip wrote to his eldest son, Charles, counselling him to make up his mind to either propose to Lady Diana Spencer or break off their courtship. [62], As consort to the Queen, Philip supported his wife in her new duties as sovereign, accompanying her to ceremonies such as the State Opening of Parliament in various countries, state dinners, and tours abroad. [72] Remarks he made two years later to the Canadian Medical Association on the subject of youth and sport were taken as a suggestion that Canadian children were out of shape. [14] Philip had little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood. He spent four months on the battleship HMS Ramillies, protecting convoys of the Australian Expeditionary Force in the Indian Ocean, followed by shorter postings on HMS Kent, on HMS Shropshire, and in Ceylon. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II, the father of Prince Charles and the grandfather of Prince Harry and Prince William. Victoria Mountbatten, Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven, George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich, Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten, List of titles and honours of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Princess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi, Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia, Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia, Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, "Do your DofE – The Duke of Edinburgh's Award", "A strange life: Profile of Prince Philip", "Prince Philip's war heroics come to light after 60 years", "Queen and Duke of Edinburgh celebrate 65th wedding anniversary", "HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (Lords Sitting of 21 July 1948)", "Earl Mountbatten of Burma (Lords Sitting of 21 July 1948)", "The Duke of Edinburgh > Military involvement", "Emma Soames: As Churchills we're proud to do our duty", "Supplement to The London Gazette of Friday, 5th February 1960", "Prince Philip: The Man At The Queen's Side", "Prince Philip (HRH The Duke of Edinburgh)", "Duke of Edinburgh attended boxing match as first of 22,000 official duties", "Prince William succeeds the Duke of Edinburgh as he gives up royal role", "Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Talks Love of and Involvement in Combined Driving", "The Duke of Edinburgh: Activities and interests", "Our Chief Executive thanks Prince Philip for his commitment as Patron", "St Edmund's College – University of Cambridge", "Prince Philip, 97, becomes third oldest royal (and oldest ever male) in British history – but who is number one? [102] After a recurrence of infection in August 2012, while staying at Balmoral Castle, he was admitted to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary for five nights as a precautionary measure. Isabella's brothers Louis, Philip and Charles all … [165], "Prince Philip" redirects here. Prince Philip was born on the island of Corfu in Greece, on June 10, 1921. Philip’s third marriage, with Elizabeth of Valois, daughter of Henry II of France, in 1559, was the result of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559), which, for a generation, ended the open wars between Spain and France. He married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. [113] That October, he accompanied the Queen to the wedding of their granddaughter Princess Eugenie to Jack Brooksbank,[114] with The Daily Telegraph reporting that Philip works on a "wake up and see how I feel" basis when deciding whether to attend an event or not. Pinches, J. H. & R. V., The Royal Heraldry of England, 1974, Heraldry Today. [134] As well as a reputation for bluntness and plain speaking,[135] Philip is noted for occasionally making observations and jokes that have been construed as either funny, or as gaffes: awkward, politically incorrect, or even offensive, but sometimes perceived as stereotypical of someone of his age and background. ", "Statement From Buckingham Palace Following the Evening Standard's Story Entitled 'Prince Philip Defies Cancer Scare, "British Paper Retracts Story Claiming Prince Philip Has Prostate Cancer", "Paper apologises for Prince Philip story", "Prince Philip Turns 90 and Vows to 'Slow Down, "New title for Duke of Edinburgh as he turns 90", "Prince Philip has heart procedure at Papworth Hospital", "Prince Philip in hospital and to miss Diamond Jubilee concert", "Britain's Prince Philip released from hospital in time for his birthday", "Prince Philip leaves Aberdeen hospital after five nights", "Prince Philip leaves hospital, will recuperate at Windsor Castle", "Duke of Edinburgh has 'minor procedure' on hand", "Prince Philip admitted to hospital with infection and misses State Opening of Parliament", "Prince Philip to spend second night in hospital", "UK's Prince Philip Discharged from Hospital after Treatment for Infection", "Prince Philip carries out final royal engagement before retirement", "Prince Philip carries out final official engagement", "Queen and Prince Philip portraits released to mark 70th anniversary", "Princess Eugenie wedding in pictures: Splendid hats and gusts of wind", "Duke of Edinburgh 'will decide at last moment' whether he attends royal wedding of Princess Eugenie", "Prince Philip crash: Duke 'asked if everyone else was alright' after car 'tumbled' across road leaving him bleeding", "Prince Philip has not said sorry for car crash, injured woman claims", "Prince Philip undergoes hospital checks after car crash", "Prince Philip sends personal apology to victims of Sandringham car crash", "Prince Philip gives up driving licence three weeks after car crash", "Prince Philip, 97, gives up driving licence", "Prince Philip will not be prosecuted over car crash, says CPS", "Prince Philip 'spotted behind wheel for first time since giving up licence, "Prince Philip leaves hospital to spend Christmas with the Queen", "Prince Philip taken to hospital as a 'precautionary measure, "Prince Philip: Photo with Queen to mark Duke of Edinburgh's 99th birthday", "Royal couples' grandparents' jet-age meeting", "Truth behind Prince George's love of aviation", "I'm tickled to death. In British royalty, the wife of a king is called a queen consort, but the husband of a queen is called a prince consort, not a king consort. By June 1204, the French king, Philip Augustus, had conquered Normandy. He was also awarded the Greek War Cross. [50][51], With the King in ill health, Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh were both appointed to the Privy Council on 4 November 1951, after a coast-to-coast tour of Canada. [156] In 1975, he was appointed Colonel of the Grenadier Guards, a position he handed over to his son Andrew in 2017. Prince Charles, the oldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, is the heir apparent to the British throne. [16] With the rise of Nazism in Germany, Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn, fled persecution and founded Gordonstoun School in Scotland, to which Philip moved after two terms at Salem. The supporters are, dexter, the figure of Hercules proper, and sinister, a lion queue fourche ducally crowned or, gorged with a naval coronet azure."[161]. [55] While it seems the Queen had "absolutely set her heart" on such a change and had it in mind for some time, it occurred only 11 days before the birth of Prince Andrew (19 February), and only after three months of protracted correspondence between constitutional expert Edward Iwi (who averred that, without such a change, the royal child would be born with "the Badge of Bastardy") and Prime Minister Harold Macmillan who had attempted to rebuff Iwi. As members of Greek and Danish royalty, Philip and his family were banished from his native country when he was young, with the boy subsequently living in France, Germany and Britain. He was baptised in the Greek Orthodox rite at St. George's Church in the Old Fortress in Corfu. [39] Consequently, being already a Knight of the Garter, between 19 and 20 November 1947 he bore the unusual style His Royal Highness Sir Philip Mountbatten, and is so described in the Letters Patent of 20 November 1947. Shortly after his birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg, died in London. However, because of the central role in the conflict played by the Narragansetts , who composed the largest Native American group then in southern New England, some historians refer to the conflict as the Great Narragansett War. The Duke of Edinburgh's time as royal consort exceeds that of any other consort in British history. The hoax, which spread in the midst of the coronavirus outbreak, was related to … In fact, however, he attends Parliament only when escorting the Queen for the annual State Opening of Parliament, where he walks and sits beside her. Many of Philip's family members remained in Germany, including his sisters, who married into German aristocratic circles. During the visit, the Queen and Louis Mountbatten asked his nephew Philip to escort the King's two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, who were Philip's third cousins through Queen Victoria, and second cousins once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark. Drake, James D. King Philip’s War: Civil War in New England, 1675-1676. In 1939, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth toured the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. Like her father, King Philip IV, Isabella's beauty was commented on at the time. It was Philip who broke the news to Elizabeth at Sagana Lodge, and the royal party immediately returned to the United Kingdom. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich, also known as Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, is the only son of Prince Andrew of … [29][30] He was present in Tokyo Bay when the instrument of Japanese surrender was signed. In 1554 Philip married Mary I of England and became joint sovereign of England until Mary’s death, without issue, in 1558. [82] They married five months later. Buckingham Palace, which usually refuses to comment on rumours of ill health, claimed that the report was an invasion of privacy and issued a statement denying the story. Elizabeth of France, Married 1559 - 1568. Reluctant to sever his tie with England, Philip proposed marriage to England's new sovereign, his sister-in-law, Elizabeth I , but his offer was diplomatically declined. He achieved that dignity when he married Queen Mary ('Bloody Mary', r.1553-58) in July 1554, and surrendered it when she died in November 1558. Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather Prince Louis of Battenberg, then known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. [127] He was also a keen yachtsman and struck up a friendship in 1949 with Uffa Fox, in Cowes. [79] He is an Honorary Fellow of St Edmund's College, Cambridge.[80]. [115], On 17 January 2019, 97-year-old Philip was involved in a car crash as he pulled out onto a main road near the Sandringham Estate. PRINCE PHILIP has been by the side of his wife, the Queen, for more than 70 years. 176–178, Alexandra, p. 42; Heald, p. 34. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark,[1] 10 June 1921)[fn 1] is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. Prince Charles, their oldest child, is the heir apparent to the throne. [128] He was presented with Royal Air Force wings in 1953. And, Often, His Foot", "Duke of Edinburgh gaffes by mocking blind boy", "The Crown: Tobias Menzies cast as new Prince Philip", "The British Novelist Who Turned A Class System Upside Down", "Royalty – Debrett's Guide to British Behaviour", "The Duke of York is appointed Colonel of the Grenadier Guards", "The Duke of Edinburgh appointed Lord High Admiral", "PM announces the appointment of His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh to the highest ranks of the Canadian Armed Forces", "Queen grants new honour to Prince Philip for 70th wedding anniversary", The Duke of Edinburgh at the Royal Family website, Newspaper clippings about Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh, Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, Grand Master of the Order of the British Empire, Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom, Margarita, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Cecilie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine, Sophie, Princess George William of Hanover, Order of precedence in the United Kingdom (gentlemen), Presiding Officer of the Scottish Parliament, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, Alastair, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Chancellors of the University of Cambridge, Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, Alice, Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark, Dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland, Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Prince_Philip,_Duke_of_Edinburgh&oldid=1000903137, Naturalised citizens of the United Kingdom, Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, Fellows of the Royal Society (Statute 12), Honorary fellows of the Royal Microscopical Society, Presidents of the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, Chancellors of the University of Edinburgh, Presidents of the Marylebone Cricket Club, Presidents of the Zoological Society of London, Pages containing London Gazette template with parameter supp set to y, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia temporarily semi-protected biographies of living people, Pages using infobox military person with embed, Articles lacking reliable references from April 2020, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 January 2021, at 08:28. [46] On 16 July 1950, he was promoted to lieutenant commander and given command of the frigate HMS Magpie. He perceived that the power of the French monarch would never be extended until the Plantagenets power was defeated. Within his family, Philip has intervened in personal relationships, at times leading to conflict. But the Duke of Edinburgh is still not considered a king, despite being married to the Queen. Brandreth, pp. Philip's mother was eventually committed to a psychiatric institution while his father relocated to the south of France, maintaining limited contact with the rest of the family. [21] During the Second World War, he continued to serve in the British forces, while two of his brothers-in-law, Prince Christoph of Hesse and Berthold, Margrave of Baden, fought on the opposing German side. Philip’s father, who was working in the army, was accused of treason and exiled. Philip was introduced to the House of Lords on 21 July 1948,[43] immediately before his uncle Louis Mountbatten, who had been made Earl Mountbatten of Burma. On the morning of the wedding, Philip became the Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich. [124] He had not been seen in public since attending Lady Gabriella Kingston's wedding in May 2019. [123], From 20 to 24 December 2019, Philip stayed at King Edward VII's Hospital and received treatment for a "pre-existing condition", in a visit described by Buckingham Palace as a "precautionary measure". [86] The royal family's seclusion caused public dismay,[86] but the public mood changed after a live broadcast made by the Queen on 5 September. [3] A member of the House of Glücksburg, the ruling house of Denmark, he was a prince of both Greece and Denmark by virtue of his patrilineal descent from George I of Greece and Christian IX of Denmark, and he was from birth in the line of succession to both thrones. In the same year, he also established the Commonwealth Study Conferences. Further press reports claimed that the Queen and the Duke were drifting apart, which enraged the Duke and dismayed the Queen, who issued a strongly worded denial. Philip has remained the queen's consort for more than six decades, having accompanied her in her official duties and appearances throughout the world. Under the terms of the Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain, Philip was to enjoy Mary I's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. Philip was born into the Greek and Danish royal families. A former theater and television producer, Edward remains active in charity. The King granted his request, provided that any formal engagement be delayed until Elizabeth's 21st birthday the following April. During the Second World War he served with distinction in the Mediterranean and Pacific Fleets. His role as Honorary Air Commodore-in-Chief was handed over to the public on 10! 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